Economic History – Michigan – Detroit – Economic Development

Economic History of Michigan. Free books & articles on historic economic topics, development. Mining, Automobile manufacturing, Labor history, Logging, Fur trade, Kellogg’s cereals, Ford Motor Co., salt mining, Mackinac Bridge, Studebaker, Wild Cat banking, Menominee iron range, Great Railroad Conspiracy, Epidemic of 1848, asylums for the insane, Dodge Brothers auto co., Battle Creek Sanitarium, furniture industry of Grand Rapids, surveying public lands, River Rouge plant, copper mining in the upper peninsula, railroads, General Motors

Find the Directory for 90+ pages in this collection at History of the Great Lakes States.

Report of the Directors of the Michigan Central Railroad Company to the Stockholders

Together with the reports of the Treasurer and Superintendent. June 1854

Boston: Eastburn’s Press 1854

This report of about 35 pages contains financial reports; a report from the Directors that remarks on operations of each of the various lines, describing any issues experienced; the Treasurer’s Report, and the Superintendent’s Report about equipment, buildings, engines, machinery, track and other assets. At the back of the report is a collection of Tables showing passengers, passenger earnings, various kinds of freight and earnings therefrom, a list of all stations, and expenses by category.

Cornflake Crusade

Carson, Gerald
NY: Rinehart 1957

This extensively-researched popular history chronicles how Battle Creek, Michigan, became both a health center and the place where America’s breakfast cereal industry developed at the turn of the century. Carson tells how Battle Creek first hosted a famous sanitarium run by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943), under the initial sponsorship of the Seventh-Day Adventists, and featuring water cures, vegetarianism, exercise, and sexual abstinence. Kellogg, raised in an Adventist family, later parted company with that denomination over religious differences. His sanitarium encouraged other experimental medical enterprises, transforming Battle Creek into a place where entrepreneurs began to produce “healthy” foods such as crackers, coffee substitutes, and, especially, cereals. Charles W. Post, a disgruntled former Kellogg patient who practiced briefly as a healer himself, achieved early success manufacturing and marketing these new products. By standardizing sizes and recipes for such foods as Grape Nuts and Postum, and combining mass distribution methods with aggressive advertising techniques, Post achieved spectacular success with consumers and paved the way for a host of competitors.
– Library of Congress American Memory website

The Road is Yours; The Story of the Automobile and the Men Behind It

Cleveland, Reginald M. and Williamson, S. T.
NY: Greystone 1951

The Trail of the Lonesome Truck

A vivid recital of the unprecedented journey made by a three-ton Packard, the first heavy-duty motor vehicle to cross the continent on its own power

Fishleigh, W. T.
Detroit: Packard Motor Car Company 1911

With photos.

Books and articles about everyday life, women, ethnic groups, social issues etc. at Topics in the social history of Michigan

Ford Factory Facts

Ford Motor Company
Detroit: 1915

A 60-page public relations booklet providing a tour of a plant and the company, with numerous photos.

See also: Arnold, Horace Lucien and Faurote, Fay Leone, Ford Methods and the Ford Shops (1915) in Automobile History
Gibson, Charles R., The Romance of Modern Manufacture; a Popular Account of the Marvels of Manufacturing in American Companies & Industries

See our collection of articles on the History of Medicine and of books on Medicine – History of Medicine

A Visit to the River Rouge Plant

Ford Motor Company
Detroit: Ford Motor Company 1937

Books and articles on Politics & Government in historic Michigan

“Early Settlement of the Copper Regions of Lake Superior”

Historical Collections Vol 7, 1886, 181-192

Forster, John Harris
Lansing: Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society

“Life in the Copper Mines of Lake Superior”

Historical Collections Vol 11, 1888, 175-186

Forster, John H.
Lansing: Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society

Drawing from his own experience, the author provides a non-technical description of the life and work of pioneer miners who arrived in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula in the region’s early days, and the slow and strenuous process of developing a mine and supporting town. He also compares some of the processes of the pioneer miner to the ‘modern’ mining techniques at the time of writing, in the 1880s.

“The Early Railroads of Southern Michigan”

Michigan Historical Collections vol. 38 (1919) pp 498 – 501

Frost, Clarence
Lansing: The Michigan Historical Society

Describes the first roads and early railroads. The first major road was the Chicago turnpike from Detroit, built from 1825-30, and the first railroad in SE Michigan was completed from Port Lawrence (Toledo) to Adrian in 1836. This Erie & Kalamazoo line had wooden rails and, at first, horse-drawn coaches.

For more books on railroads in U.S. history, see: Railroad History.

“Forestry in Michigan”

Michigan Historical Collections vol. 35 (1907) pp. 176- 180

Garfield, Charles W.
Lansing: The Michigan Historical Society

The author of this sharp criticism of the forestry industry in Michigan writes, “It is the next fellow [after the pioneers who arrived to farm] that I criticize, the man that gathered where he had not strewn, the lumberman that cut ruthlessly, and with the hand of vandalism, into this wondrous wealth of Michigan and left as his legacy little to stand for the wealth he swept away except a desolate landscape and a crop of millionaires.”

See also:Pinchot, Gifford, A Primer of Forestry in Gardening, Farming & Forestry.
Hotchkiss, George Woodward, History of the Lumber and Forest Industry of the Northwest in Economic History in the Great Lakes Region

History of Medicine and Surgery in Grand Rapids, Michigan

Graves, Schuyler C., M.D.
Grand Rapids?: 1891?

See our book collection on Railroad History and Civil Engineering and Construction

When Beaver was King

Hamil, Frederick Coyne
Detroit: Wayne University 1951

A light, brisk overview of the fur trade, which dominated the economy of New France when Michigan was under French rule.

For works on the “Indian trade”, or fur trade, see:
– Adams, J. A., “The Indian Trader of the Upper Ohio Valley” in Ohio Economic History
Stevens, Wayne E., “The Organization of the British Fur Trade 1760-1800″ in “The Indian Trader of the Upper Ohio Valley” in Ohio Economic History;
Johnson, Ida Amanda, The Michigan Fur Trade in Michigan Economic History;
Turner, Frederick Jackson, The Character and Influence of the Indian Trade in Wisconsin; a study of the Trading Post as an Institution in Wisconsin Economic History;
Way, Royal B., “The United States Factory System for Trading with the Indians, 1796-1822″ in Economic History in the Great Lakes Region

Vein of Iron; The Pickands Mather Story

Havighurst, Walter
Cleveland: World 1958

Pickands Mather & Co. was founded in 1883 to mine iron ore in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, and went on to become a major company with interests in mining, ore processing, dock management and steamships around the Great Lakes.

The Great Railroad Conspiracy; The Social History of a Railroad War

Hirschfeld, Charles
Michigan State College 1953

Transactions of the State Agricultural Society, with reports of County Agricultural Societies, for 1850

Holmes, J. C. Secretary Michigan State Agricultural Society
Lansing: Ingals 1851

This is of interest partly for the way it shows how government at all levels in Michigan, from the state’s earliest days, promoted a scientific approach to agriculture by Michigan farmers. Through local societies, county and state fairs, and various modes of education, the most advanced practices of the day were collected, discussed and disseminated. Participation was open to anyone.

Books and articles on Local, City, and County History in Michigan

“The Epidemic of 1848 in Shiawassee County”

Historical Collections Vol 28, 1900, 506-511

Huggins, Andrew
Lansing: Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society

The author recalled when the villages of Corunna and Owosso were hit by an epidemic of a disease unknown at the time. He describes the efforts of doctors and residents to diagnose it and find remedies.

See our book collections on Ships, Sailing & Seamanship and Sailors & Shipping on the Great Lakes

“History of Asylums for the Insane in Michigan”

Historical Collections Vol 13, 1889, 292-307

Hurd, Henry M.
Lansing: Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society

“The establishment of the Michigan Asylum for the Insane, at Kalamazoo, was the outcome of a philanthropic movement for the relief and care of the insane, inaugurated by Dorothea L. Dix, then of Boston, whose life was consecrated to humanitarian work.” Prior to this movement, there were no public institutions dedicated for the care of people with serious mental illness. 1848 Gov. Ransom recommended establishment of a hospital for the insane and an asylum for the deaf and dumb. It was not until 1853 that a site was finally chosen and work begun, about one mile from the village of Kalamazoo. The asylum for the deaf and dumb was meanwhile established in Flint. This article mainly focuses on work by the state legislature to found the Kalamazoo asylum, and three later asylums for the insane in Pontiac, Traverse City and Ionia.

The Dodge Brothers: The Men, the Motor Cars, and the Legacy

Hyde, Charles K.
Wayne State University 2005

Growing Up in Niles, Michigan, and the Long Road to the Dodge Brothers Machine Shop in Detroit — Automotive Suppliers to Ransom Olds and Henry Ford, 1901-1914 — The First Dodge Brothers Automobile — A Successful Car and a Successful Company, 1915-1920 — The Dodge Brothers in Perspective — Dodge Brothers under Frederick J. Haynes, 1920-1925 — The Dillon, Read Years and the Merger with the Chrysler Corporation, 1925-1928 — Retrospective: The Dodge Brothers, the Motor Cars, and the Legacy

Story of the Grand Rapids Strike

Irwin, R. W.

Subtitle: “Address delivered at the Semi-Annual Meeting of the National Association of Furniture Manufacturers held at Indianapolis, Dec. 6 and 7, 1911”
This is about a city-wide strike of furniture workers in 1910. Grand Rapids had 9,000 workers in 53 furniture factories at the time, according to the author.

For more on the furniture industry, see the histories of Grand Rapids at: History of Michigan Cities, Counties & Regions

Also see: Mitchell, John, Organized Labor, its Problems, Purposes and Ideals, and the Present and Future of American Wage Earners in Working, Labor.

General histories and works that don’t fit the descriptions for other pages are in The History of Michigan

Eighty Acres: Elegy for a Family Farm

Jager, Ronald
Beacon 1990

The Michigan Fur Trade

Johnson, Ida Amanda
Lansing: Michigan Historical Publications 1919

This is a much more thorough study of the Michigan fur trade than the work by Hamil on this page. The book first explains the background on French development of the North American trade, and the establishment of early Michigan posts in Sault Ste. Marie, Michilimackinac, and Fort St. Joseph. Founded in 1701, Detroit becomes “The Great Depot of Trade”. The British take over Michigan and its fur trade in the 1760s, and continue to dominate both into the 1790s, even though Great Britain had formally surrendered Michigan to the U.S. in the Paris Peace Treaty of 1783. When the British finally departed the fur trade was continued for decades by American companies like John Jacob Astor’s.

For works on the “Indian trade”, or fur trade, see:
– Adams, J. A., “The Indian Trader of the Upper Ohio Valley” in Ohio Economic History
Stevens, Wayne E., “The Organization of the British Fur Trade 1760-1800″ in “The Indian Trader of the Upper Ohio Valley” in Ohio Economic History;
Turner, Frederick Jackson, The Character and Influence of the Indian Trade in Wisconsin; a study of the Trading Post as an Institution in Wisconsin Economic History;
Way, Royal B., “The United States Factory System for Trading with the Indians, 1796-1822″ in Economic History in the Great Lakes Region

Deep Woods Frontier: A History of Logging in Northern Michigan

Karamanski, Theodore J.
Wayne State University 1989

In Deep Woods Frontier, Theodore J. Karamanski examines the interplay between men and technology
in the lumbering of Upper Peninsula.
Three distinct periods emerged as the industry evolved. The pine era was a rough pioneering time when trees were felled by axe and floated to ports where logs were loaded on schooners for shipment to large cities. When the bulk of the pine forests had been cut, other entrepreneurs saw opportunity in the unexploited stands of maple and birch and harnessed the railroad to transport logs. Finally, in the pulpwood era, “weed trees,” despised by previous loggers, are cut by chain saw, and moved by skidder and truck. Narrating the history of forest industry, Karamanski provides a dynamic study of an important part of the Upper Peninsula’s economy.

Books and articles on education, the arts, journalism, recreation and architecture are in Michigan Cultural History

“An Historical Sketch of Internal Improvements in Michigan, 1836-1846”

Publications of the Michigan Political Science Association Vol. IV No. 1 July 1900

Keith, Hannah Emily
Michigan Political Science Association

48-page paper published as a booklet.

See our book collections on Workers and Working Conditions and Farming and Forestry

The Battle Creek Sanitarium; History, Organization, Methods

Kellogg, John Harvey, M.D.
Battle Creek: 1913

The Battle Creek Sanitarium was founded in 1866 by a group of Seventh-day Adventists to implement revolutionary dietary and health principles, and became famous worldwide in the late 19th century for its water and fresh air treatments, exercise regimens and diet reform. This informational booklet, containing numerous photos, was authored by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, Director for 65 years. The Sanitarium and Dr. Kellogg were portrayed in the 1994 comedy film “The Road to Wellville”, starring Anthony Hopkins, Matthew Broderick, and Bridget Fonda.
C.W. Post, who had been a patient at the Sanitarium in 1891 and became fascinated by the health foods found there, established the Post cereal company in Battle Creek. Dr. Kellogg’s younger brother, who worked at the Sanitarium for many years, founded the Kellogg’s cereal company.

A Little Journey to the Home of Kellogg’s Toasted Corn Flakes

Kellogg Toasted Corn Flake Company
Battle Creek: Kellogg Toasted Corn Flake Company 1916

Subtitle: “which is also the home of other good things to eat”.
35-page promotional publication with numerous photos of the plant.

Motor Memories; A Saga of Whirling Gears

Lewis, Eugene W.
Detroit: Alved 1947

The early history of Detroit autos, and the men who built them.

Lumber Bibliography of Michigan

Lloyd, William B.
East Lansing: Michigan State University 1961

Two Hundred and Fifty Years of Michigan Dairying

Lucas, P. S.
Lansing: American Dairy Association of Michigan 1955

A 45-page booklet, including many illustrations.

Collection of Michigan Biographies & Memoirs

Michigan Airports

Michigan Board of Aeronautics
Lansing?: 1944

See our book collection on Auto & Motorcycle History

Medical History of Michigan Volume 1

Michigan State Medical Society
Minneapolis: Bruce. 1930

Some chapter headings: The American Indian: His Mentality, Manners, Morals and Medicine, Physicians with the Early Explorers and Adventurers, Eighteenth Century Michigan Physicians, Pioneer Physicians – Types and Anecdotes, Medical Education in Michigan, Some Medical Men and Methods of Yester-year, Prevailing Diseases and Epidemics.

Also see:
– Dittrick, Howard, “The Equipment, Instruments and Drugs of Pioneer Physicians of Ohio” in Ohio Economic History
Juettner, Otto, Daniel Drake and his Followers: Historical and Biographical Sketches, 1785-1909 in Biographies & Memoirs in Ohio History;
Kemper, G. W. H., A Medical History of the State of Indiana in Indiana Economic History;
Zeuch, Lucius H., M.D., compiled, History of Medical Practice in Illinois in Illinois Economic History;
Frank, Louis Frederick (Dr.), The Medical History of Milwaukee: 1834-1914 in Wisconsin Economic History

Kilowatts at Work; A History of the Detroit Edison Company

Miller, Raymond C.
Detroit: Wayne State University 1957

The Menominee Iron Range

Its cities, their industries and resources, being a sketch of the discovery and development of the great iron ore beds of the North, situated within portions of the States of Michigan and Wisconsin south of Lake Superior : submitted as a hand-book for the information of those seeking a profitable field for labor and investment. With maps and illustrations

Nursey, Walter R.
Milwaukee: Swain & Tate 1891

On the page facing the title page is written, “A business invitation to the Menominee Iron Range Addressed to You, from the Lumberman and the Miner. ” Despite the book being aimed at attracting investors, it appears to be a substantive history and description of the mining region. Chapter headings are:

– The Menominee River Country – the Old and the New – The Menominee Iron Range – Discovery and Development – The Ore and the Iron of the Menominee – Comparative and Affirmative – The Iron Mines of the Menominee Range – Facts and Fancies – The Cities and Towns of the Range – Their Industries and their Resources
— Norway — Iron Mountain — Florence — Crystal Falls — Iron River

Report of the Directors to the Stockholders of the Pewabic Mining Company. Issued May 10, 1859

Pewabic Mining Company
Boston: Rand & Avery 1859

The Pewabic company operated three copper mines in Houghton County, on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Northern Michigan.

See our collection of articles on the History of Science & Technology and of books on Science & Technology

History of the Navigation of the Great Lakes

Plumb, Ralph Gordon
Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1911

In 1911 the Congressional Committee on Railways and Canals had recently reviewed several proposals for canals connected to the Great Lakes that would create new or shorter waterways to enhance commerce. The chairman of the Committee authorized the printing of this 80-page early history of Great Lakes navigation as a part of the committee’s records, presumably because it covered previous attempts to build canals, and efforts to otherwise improve Great Lakes waterways and port facilities. Chapter headings are:

– The Beginnings – The Era of Expansion and Development – The Age of Steel – The History of Lake Superior – The United States Harbor Improvements on the Lakes – Canadian Harbor Improvements on the Lakes – The Lighthouse, Life- Saving, and Revenue- Cutter Systems – Disasters on the Lakes – Marine Employers’ and Employees’ Organizations – Economic Effects of the Great Lakes

For works on boats and shipping, see: Navigation on the Great Lakes & the Region’s Rivers

Also see books on ships and seamanship in: Ships & Seamanship.

Michigan Iron Mines

Reed, Robert C.
Michigan Dept of Conservation 1957

When Pine was King

Reimann, Lewis Charles
Ann Arbor: Reimann 1952

A light and entertaining popular history of the timber industry in the upper peninsula.

See also: Hotchkiss, George Woodward, History of the Lumber and Forest Industry of the Northwest in Economic History in the Great Lakes Region
Pinchot, Gifford, A Primer of Forestry in Gardening, Farming & Forestry

“The Fur Traders of the Grand River Valley”

Publications of the Historical Society of Grand Rapids No. 2, Vol. 1, Part 2

Richmond, Rebecca L.
Grand Rapids: Historical Society 1907

For works on the “Indian trade”, or fur trade, see:
– Adams, J. A., “The Indian Trader of the Upper Ohio Valley” in Ohio Economic History
Stevens, Wayne E., “The Organization of the British Fur Trade 1760-1800″ in “The Indian Trader of the Upper Ohio Valley” in Ohio Economic History;
Johnson, Ida Amanda, The Michigan Fur Trade in Michigan Economic History;
Turner, Frederick Jackson, The Character and Influence of the Indian Trade in Wisconsin; a study of the Trading Post as an Institution in Wisconsin Economic History;
Way, Royal B., “The United States Factory System for Trading with the Indians, 1796-1822″ in Economic History in the Great Lakes Region

A Trip Through the Most Modern Salt Plant

Ruggles and Rademaker
Manistee, MI: Ruggles and Rademaker 1924

A True Description of the Lake Superior Country

Its rivers, coasts, bays, harbours, islands and commerce, with Bayfield’s chart (showing the boundary line as established by joint commission) also a minute account of the copper mines and working companies. Accompanied by a map of the mineral regions; showing, by their no. and place, all the different locations: and containing a concise mode of assaying, treating, smelting, and refining copper ores

St. John, John R.
NY: Graham 1846

This book was written in the early part of the era of copper mining in the upper peninsula. It was intended as an effort to map and describe the locations of mines and mineral deposits in the region where they exist. The first portion of 50 pages or so is mainly a travelogue, describing the route to the copper country along Lake Superior shores, the geography of the region where the mines are located, and the harbor towns.

“This descriptive discussion of the Lake Superior country emphasizes geographical features and is directed primarily towards those interested in locating and exploiting the region’s mineral deposits of copper and iron. Nevertheless, it is written as a travel narrative, with the author progressing along the shoreline areas, noting their scenic beauties and providing anecdotes and opinions along the way. The reader is told what to wear and what transportation facilities and amenities will be found en route. The book lists mining companies already functioning in the area and gives information about their management and the nature of their operations. Among other information, there is also a glossary of mining terms, a list of grantees, a short vocabulary of French and local Indian words, and a list of steamship and sailing vessels.”
-Library of Congress American Memory website

Also see the histories of Northern Michigan at: History of Michigan Cities, Counties & Regions

Links to Museums & Historic Sites in the Michigan U.P.: Museums & Historic Sites in Northern Michigan

Detroit: An Industrial Miracle

Stark, George W.
Detroit: Detroit Directory of Business and Industry 1951

An online vintage collection of Settlers’ guides and ‘Emigrant Handbooks’ for the Great Lakes region

Miracle Bridge at Mackinac

Steinman, David Barnard
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 1957

The Studebaker Automobile Book

The Studebaker Corporation of America
Detroit: Studebaker 1914

Studebaker’s catalog of new cars for 1914.

“The Wild Cat Banking System of Michigan”

Historical Collections Vol 5, 1884, 209-222

Utley, H. M.
Lansing: Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society

The author provides a brief background history of banking and finance in Michigan as it existed before President Andrew Jackson revoked the charter of the Bank of the United States, which contributed to a sudden financial crisis throughout the country in 1836-7. In response to the depressed economy, the Michigan state legislature passed an 1837 act that made it possible for anyone who wished to do so to transact “banking business”. The author then addresses the history of the “Wild Cat Banks” that were enabled by the Act; explaining their financial operations and describing some spectacular frauds.

The History of Dentistry in Michigan

Vedder, Francis B., DDS
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan 1925

The Ghost Towns of Michigan Vol 1

Vol 2

Wakefield, Larry
Northmont 1994

“There are hundreds and hundreds of ghost towns in Michigan. Most of them grew up along a railroad and around a sawmill or a mine. They flourished for a while, then languished and died when the timber was gone, the ore ran out, and the railroad stopped running. They range from lonesome sites where almost nothing is left to mark their former existence, to others where a few people still live out of love, habit, or necessity (and may resent someone calling their village a ghost town). These are ghost towns in the sense that now they are only pale apparitions of what they used to be.” -Book cover

Beard’s directory and history of Marquette County [Mich.] with sketches of the early history of Lake Superior, its mines, furnaces, etc., etc.

Walker, Charles Irish
Detroit: Hadger & Bryce 1873

Of interest mainly for the essays within it. They are:

“The Early History of Lake Superior. Sketch of the early explorations, with a notice of the missionaries and their labors” by C. I. Walker. Pp 165-200.
” A Sketch of some of the Mines and Furnaces of Lake Superior” anonymous. Pp 201-240.

Appendix: “A Stranger’s Impression of Marquette County”pp I-XIII.

Wendell’s History of Banking & Banks & Bankers of Michigan vol 1

Volume 2

A concise history of banking operations from the earliest time to the present, with detailed accounts of Michigan banking history & law, & sketches of leading banks & bankers of the state as they are at the opening of the twentieth century

Wendell, Emory
Detroit: Winn & Hammond 1902

In the Preface, the author wrote that, “It has been the aim to give, in the first twenty chapters, … a concise and comprehensive account of the most important facts and incidents of banking history in Europe and in the United States. The rest of the work is devoted chiefly to the history of bank legislation in Michigan, to an account of Michigan banks as they are at the opening of the twentieth century, and to brief biographical sketches of men who have been prominent in this useful field of finance.” Chapters on Michigan banking are:

Volume 1
– The Detroit Banks – Bank Legislation as it Now Stands

Volume 2
– Early Banking in Michigan – The Wild- Cat Banks – Foundation of the Modern System – The General Banking Law of 1888 – Operation of the General Banking Law – The Business of Trust Companies – The Banks and Financial Crises – The Grand Rapids Banks – The Saginaw Banks – The Banks of the Bay Cities – Banks in other Cities and Towns

“The Early History of the Furniture Industry in Grand Rapids”

Publications of the Historical Society of Grand Rapids No. 5, Vol. 1, Part 5

Widdicomb, William
Grand Rapids: Historical Society 1909

Also see: Wells, Percy A., & Hooper, John, Modern Cabinet Work, Furniture and Fitments in Woodworking, Cabinet-making

Please visit our collection of 2,000+ selected online magazine and newspaper articles on 40 subjects, plus online map & vintage photo collections, at Century Past History Resources

“The Public Domain, its Surveys and Surveyors”

Historical Collections Vol 27, 1897, 306-323

Woodard, C. S.
Lansing: Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society

This article begins with the historical background of the Ordinance of 1785, which provided the basis for surveys of public lands in the Northwest Territory. The author goes on to describe in detail the actual work of surveying by teams, including the practical problems they encountered in making and documenting accurate surveys. In addition he describes how the survey teams managed to live in the wilderness as they did their work. Although there is no profile of the author, he clearly was very familiar with the life and work of surveyors.

We have many more books from the late 19th and early 20th centuries on topics such as manufacturing, engineering, agriculture, business management, transportation and home economics. Visit the Subject Directory on our Century Past Free Online Library.

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