Selected free online books and articles about Indians and Tribes in the Great Lakes, and their history. Many tribes and topics included.
Also see the links at the bottom of the page for more collections about the history of Native Americans in each of the five states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin, and for the rest of the United States.
Find the Directory for 90+ pages in this collection at History of the Great Lakes States.
Numerous free online books on the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Great Lakes Indians”. Be patient as the page loads.
Northwood 1992 Dewey Dec. 973.91
“As you travel through the Great Lakes states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, you’ll arrive at a profound understanding of Native America’s role in American art, culture, history, and religion.” -Publisher
University of Oklahoma 1970 Dewey Dec. 973.91
“One of the small group of tribes comprising the Illinois division of the Algonquian linguistic family, the Miamis emerged as a pivotal tribe only during the French and British imperial wars, the Miami Confederacy wars of the 18th century and the treaty-making period of the 19th century.” -Publisher
Contents: Early Miami life — The French period in Indiana, 1700-1763 — The British period, 1760-1783 — The Miami confederacy — The first treaties and the War of 1812 — The treaty years, 1814-1840 — Emigration, 1841-1847 — The Miami tribe of Oklahoma, 1846-1968 — The MIamis in Indiana, 1846-1968 — The modern Miamis.
or Remarks Made on a Tour to Prairie du Chien: thence to Washington City, in 1829
The Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Region of the Great Lakes as described by Nicolas Perrot, Vol 1
French Commandant in the Northwest; Bacqueville de la Potherie, French Royal Commissioner to Canada; Morrell Marston, American Army Officer; and Thomas Forsyth, United States Agent at Fort Armstrong
Blair, Emma Helen, ed.
Cleveland: Clark 1911
Nicolas Perrot (1644-1718)
Perrot’s life among the Indian tribes began as early as 1665, little more than a half-century after the founding of Quebec; and during nearly forty years he traveled and lived among the Indians- successively as engagé to the Jesuit missionaries, coureur de bois and trader, explorer, and agent of the Quebec government. His narrative greatly illumines the history of the relations between the French colony and the Indian tribes within its sphere of influence, and still more the character and customs of the aboriginal peoples in their primitive condition; for he was the first white visitor to several of the western tribes, and even those of the east were not yet very greatly altered by contact with Europeans.
– from editor Emma H. Blair’s Preface in Vol 1.
Over 120 magazines free and online, from the early 1800s to today, at Read Old Magazines Online
The Indian Captive. A Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of Matthew Brayton in his Thirty-four years of Captivity among the Indians of North Western America
Cleveland OH, 1860
An account of the captivity of Brayton, in 1825, when seven years old, in the neighborhood of the junction of the Sandusky and Tymochte rivers, in Wyandot county, Ohio, by a remnant of the once powerful Wyandot Indians. After having been traded from tribe to tribe, in the West, for a period of thirty-four years, he found his way back to Ohio, and related the narrative of his captivity. It was published in the Cleveland Herald, in 1859, through the medium of which he was restored to his family.
– Peter G. Thomson, A Bibliography of the State of Ohio (1880)
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Washington: U.S. Dept of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs 1966
A 25-page information booklet for the public. Illustrated.
Calloway, Colin G.
“With the courage and resilience embodied by their legendary leader Tecumseh, the Shawnees waged a war of territorial and cultural resistance for half a century. Noted historian Colin G. Calloway details the political and legal battles and the bloody fighting on both sides for possession of the Shawnees? land, while imbuing historical figures such as warrior chief Tecumseh, Daniel Boone, and Andrew Jackson with all their ambiguity and complexity. More than defending their territory, the Shawnees went to war to preserve a way of life and their own deeply held vision of what their nation should be.” -Publisher
Contents: The Shawnees and their neighbors — Introduction — The greatest travelers in America — Taking on the British Empire — The travails of Cornstalk — Neglected like bastards — Blue Jacket and the Northwestern Confederation — Black Hoof and the Wapakoneta way — The visions of Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh — Removals and survivals.
The Indian, the Northwest, 1600-1900: the Red man, the War man, the White man, and the North-Western Line
Chicago and North Western Railway Company
Chicago: Chicago and North Western Railway Company 1901
Page Directory of 90+ subject pages at History of the Great Lakes States
Origin and Traditional History of the Wyandotts and Sketches of other Indian Tribes of North America …
True traditional stories of Tecumseh and his league, in the years 1811 and 1812
Clarke, Peter Dooyentate
Toronto: Hunter, Rose: 1870
Indian Life and Indian History, by an Indian Author. Embracing the Traditions of the North American Indians regarding themselves …
particularly of that most important of all the Tribes, the Ojibways. By the Celebrated Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh, Chief of the Ojibway Nation; known also by the English name of George Copway
Boston: Colby. 1858
George Copway was born in 1818 in present-day Ontario, and his parents were of the Missasauga band of Ojibwa. He was raised as a traditional Ojibwa and learned to hunt for the fur trade. He converted to Methodism and was sent at age 16 to a Methodist mission, working among Ojibwas. He later married the daughter of an English gentleman, and the couple continued to do missionary work. He also published at least two books in addition to this one, possibly with the assistance of his wife.
This volume seems to be entirely about the Ojibwas.
The Life, History and Travels of Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh (George Copway): a young Indian chief of the Ojebwa nation …
a convert to the Christian faith and a missionary to his people for twelve years; with a sketch of the present state of the Objebwa nation in regard to Christianity and their future prospects : also, an appeal with all the names of the chiefs now living, who have been christianized, and the missionaries now laboring among them
Albany, NY: 1847
Please see the biographical note about George Copway at his other book on this page, above.
Danziger, Edmund Jefferson
University of Michigan 2009 Dewey Dec. 973.91
During the four decades following the War of 1812, Great Lakes Indians were forced to surrender most of their ancestral homelands and begin refashioning their lives on reservations. The challenges Indians faced during this period could not have been greater. By century’s end, settlers, frontier developers, and federal bureaucrats possessed not only economic and political power but also the bulk of the region’s resources. It is little wonder that policymakers in Washington and Ottawa alike anticipated the disappearance of distinctive Indian communities within a single generation. However, these predictions have proved false as Great Lakes Indian communities, though assaulted on both sides of the international border to this day, have survived. Danziger’s lively and insightful book documents the story of these Great Lakes Indians—a study not of victimization but of how Aboriginal communities and their leaders have determined their own destinies and preserved core values, lands, and identities against all odds and despite ongoing marginalization.
Contents: A homeland and its people — Making a living — Agriculture on the Great Lakes homelands — Old and new alternatives to reservation agriculture — The homeland becomes a checkerboard : allotment and location tickets — Battling for the mind and soul — The education crusade — Traditional spirituality versus Christianity : finding a balance — Who shall rule at home? — Reservation politics : the challenge of shared governance — Moccasins in the mainstream
and Ending at the Treaty of Greenville, A.D. 1795: Embracing Notable Facts and Thrilling Incidents in the Settlement by the Whites of the States of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois
Dodge, Jacob R.
Springfield, OH: Ruralist 1860
A popular history by the author of the editor of a Springfield weekly newspaper. Nearly all the chapters are about battles or “thrilling incidents”.
Downes, Randolph C.
University of Pittsburgh 1940
“From the beginning, when the white traders followed the first Shawnee hunters into Western Pennsylvania, until the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, the region’s history was the history of the relationship between the Indians and the whites. The India, far from being a simple son of nature who was led about at will by the white man, was a diplomat in his own right. For nearly half a century he maintained a precarious hold upon Western Pennsylvania by the expedient of playing off one white faction against another, first the French against the British, then the British against the Americans.” – Book jacket
Contents: The Indian point of view – The Indians of Allegania, 1720-1745 – A decade of Iroquois supremacy, 1745-1754 – The breakdown of French Ascendancy, 1755-1758 – Indian revolt against British economy, 1758-1765 – A decade of British muddling, 1765-1774 – Dunmore’s War – The Indians and the outbreak of revolution on the frontier – The Fort McIntosh – Fort Laurens Indian frontier, 1778-1779 – George Rogers Clark – Indian War, 1779-1782 – The revival of American aggression, 1782-1789 – The war for the Ohio River boundary 1789-1795
being true narratives of captives who have been carried away by the Indians, from the frontier settlements of the United States, from the earliest period to the present time
Drake, Samuel G.
Auburn: Derby & Miller 1851
Published originally in 1839, the volume consists of reprints of the original narratives, without any abridgement and with only minor edits. Contains the accounts of 30 captives; the first in Florida in 1528. The majority of accounts are from the second half of the 18th century.
Books and articles on Explorers and Travel in the history of the Great Lakes region
Edgar, James D.
Toronto: Toronto News 1885
According to the author, James Edgar, the story of the White Stone Canoe was among those collected by Henry Schoolcraft. Another of Schoolcraft’s stories was used by Longfellow in his extremely popular 1855 poem, “Song of Hiawatha”. This poem is to be read in the same meter as “Hiawatha”.
Edmunds, R. David
University of Oklahoma 1978 Dewey Dec. 973.91
“The Potawatomi Indians were the dominant tribe in the region of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and southern Michigan during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Active participants in the fur trade, and close friends with many French fur traders and government leaders, the Potawatomis remained loyal to New France throughout the colonial period, resisting the lure of the inexpensive British trade goods that enticed some of their neighbors into alliances with the British. During the colonial wars Potawatomi warriors journeyed far to the south and east to fight alongside their French allies against Braddock in Pennsylvania and other British forces in New York. As French fortunes in the Old Northwest declined, the Potawatomis reluctantly shifted their allegiance to the British Crown, fighting against the Americans during the Revolution, during Tecumseh’s uprising, and during the War of 1812…
This volume, the first scholarly history of the Potawatomis and their influence in the Old Northwest, is an important contribution to American Indian history. Many of the tribe’s leaders, long forgotten, such as Main Poc, Siggenauk, Onanghisse, Five Medals, and Billy Caldwell, played key roles in the development of Indian-white relations in the Great Lakes region. The Potawatomi experience also sheds light on the development of later United States policy toward Indians of many other tribes.” -Publisher
Contents: Forging the French alliance — The Fox Wars — In defense of a dying empire — Partisans of Pontiac — Serving two fathers — The Red Confederacy — The prophet’s disciples — “Our most cruel and inveterate enemies” — “The ploughshare is driven through our tents” — Removal.
Books and articles on the History of the Great Lakes region
The Life of Pontiac, the Conspirator, Chief of the Ottawas. Together with a full account of the celebrated siege of Detroit
Ellis, Edward S.
London: Beadle 1861
For more about prominent Native American leaders in the Old Northwest, see:
– Various books and articles on Tecumseh, The Prophet, Logan, Cornstalk, Bluejacket and Joseph Brant in Biographies & Memoirs in Great Lakes History;
– Thwaites, Reuben Gold, “Logan, The Mingo Chief 1710-1780″ in Biographies & Memoirs in Ohio History;
– Cole, Cyrenus, I am a Man: the Indian Black Hawk in Biographies & Memoirs in Illinois History;
– Quaife, Milo Milton, ed., The Life of Black Hawk; Ma-Ka-Tai-Me-She-Kia-Kiak in Biographies & Memoirs in Illinois History;
– Turner, F. N. (Dr.), “Chief Okemos” in Native Americans in Michigan History;
– Matson, Nehemiah, “Sketch of Shau-be-na, a Pottawattamie Chief” in Native Americans in Wisconsin History;
Life Among the Indians; or, Personal reminiscences and historical incidents illustrative of Indian life and character
Finley, James B. and Clark, D.W.
“No living man probably saw or knew more of the Indians in the Northwest Territory than did Mr. Finley; during seventy years he was among them, and studied their history, character and manner of life. In this work he has gathered together the numerous interesting events, that, in his long experience and observation, were thought worthy of record; and has so connected the facts, as to give a very complete, though condensed view of Indian history in the Northwest. The first half of the work contains a large portion of the matter related in the History of the Wyandots, and Autobiography, by the same author.”
– Peter G. Thomson, A Bibliography of the State of Ohio (1880)
Containing Biographical Sketches of Those Pioneers Who Headed the Western Settlers in Repelling the Attacks of the Savages, Together with a View of the Character, Manners, Monuments, and Antiquities of the Western Indians
Cincinnati: E.H. Flint. 1833
Timothy Flint was one of the most significant literary figures in the early history of the Old Northwest. He was a minister and graduate of Harvard who went west in 1815 to carry out missionary work. For the next ten years he traveled in the Mississippi Valley, publishing in 1826 a memoir called Recollections of the Last Ten Years. In 1833 he published Biographical Memoir of Daniel Boone, which did much to develop the Boone legend. He also founded and edited the Western Monthly, a literary magazine in Cincinnati from 1827-1830.
You can find his biography by John Kirkpatrick on the Ohio Biographies and Memoirs page of this site. One of his novels is on the Ohio Fiction page, and another is on the Great Lakes Fiction page.
Upper Mississippi, or, Historical Sketches of the Mound-builders, the Indian Tribes and the Progress of Civilization in the North-west
from A.D. 1600 to the Present Time
Chicago: Clarke 1867
Books and articles on Religion in the early history of the Great Lakes region
in which the opinions of its conquest in the seventeenth century by the Iroquois or Six Nations, supported by Cadwallader Colden of New York, Gov. Thomas Pownall of Massachusetts, Dr. Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Hon. DeWitt Clinton of New York, and Judge John Haywood of Tennessee, are examined and contested; to which are prefixed some remarks on the study of history.
Fergus’ Historical Series No. 26-29, pp 3-52
Harrison, William Henry
Chicago: Fergus Printing 1883
“Reprinted from the Transactions of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, Vol. 1, Part Second, Cincinnati, 1839, with notes and an appendix”
Cincinnati: E. Morgan & Sons 1855
Please visit our collection of 2,000+ selected online magazine and newspaper articles on 40 subjects, plus online map & vintage photo collections, at Century Past History Resources
Hilger, M. Inez
Minnesota Historical Society 1998
During the summer and fall of 1938 Mary Inez Hilger, a sister of the Order of St. Benedict, lived on the White Earth Indian Reservation in northwestern Minnesota while she gathered data about housing conditions. Her work portrays both the traditional lifeways of 150 Chippewa families and the adaptations they made at a time of tremendous cultural change. In a series of interviews, she collected personal stories and a wealth of material about living conditions, social life, and material culture on the reservation. Her research, commissioned by the Bureau of Indian Affairs as part of a survey of the Chippewa reservations in Minnesota, became the basis for her dissertation in social science, first published in 1939.
Hulbert, Archer Butler
Columbus: Heer 1900
Jones, Peter (Kahkewaquonaby)
London: Bennett. 1861
Peter Jones (1802-1856) was born in Upper Canada and was raised to the age of 14 with his Ojibwa mother’s tribe, then went to live with his Welsh-born father. At 21 he converted to Methodism, and was later made a minister. He spent much of his career preaching to Ojibwa and Mohawk Indians in Upper Canada. This book about the Ojibwa Indians was completed and published after his death.
Publications of the American Ethnological Society, Vol VII, Part I
Jones, William, comp.
The 63 stories in this book were collected by William Jones from 1903 to 1905, mostly while doing research north of Lake Superior. A linguist, he also wrote the stories phonetically in the Ojibwa language, and facing pages throughout the book show the story in Ojibwa and in the English translation.
Judson, Katharine Berry
Northern Illinois University 2000 Dewey Dec. 973.91
Collected almost 100 years ago, these timeless tales reveal the central beliefs and guiding principles of Winnebago, Ojibwa, Menominee, and other peoples and provide a window into their outlook and aspirations. An introduction by historian Peter Iverson highlights the divergent ways Native American identity has been constructed through such legends. -Publisher
Contents: Introduction Peter Iverson – Part I Earth, Flood, Fire – Part II Corn, Wind, Thunder – Part III Rabbit, Lynx, Owl – Part IV Eagle, Panther, Opossum – Part V Sun, Moon, Stars
Kubiak, William J.
Baker Book House 1970
“This book is a genuine contribution to a better understanding of the Indians who lived near the Great Lakes. The illustrations and text present a graphic survey of the history of these Indians. Although imagination played its part, the author, widely acquainted with the available literature, has attempted to present the Great Lakes Indian as he actually dressed, hunted, ate, and fought.” -Book jacket
Books and articles on Wars in the history of the Great Lakes region
Laidlaw, George E.
28 stories that were told by a 96-year-old Ojibwa Indian from near Lake Couchiching in Ontario Province, Canada to his son, who wrote them down. George Laidlaw then rewrote them for publication.
The Aboriginal Port-folio: a Collection of Portraits of the most Celebrated Chiefs of the North American Indians
Lewis, James Otto
Philadelphia: Lewis 1835
from the Indian tribes of North America, embellished by Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall. Vol 1
McKenney, Thomas L. and Hall, James
Philadelphia: Greenough 1838
See the citation below for color versions of the portraits that accompanied this volume in some editions.
History of the Indian Tribes of North America, with Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes of the Principal Chiefs …
Embellished with One Hundred and Twenty Portraits, from the Indian Gallery in the Department of War, at Washington
McKenney, Thomas Loraine and Hall, James
Philadelphia: Greenough 1838-44
This University of Cincinnati site has all the portraits, in color, on individual pages. See the citation above for the link to the text of the book.
Please visit our Century Past Free Online Library, with thousands of books to read online or download
embracing a war excursion, and descriptions of scenes along the western borders
McKenney, Thomas L.
NY: Paine and Burgess. 1846
Also contained in the same book is a second volume by McKenney, entitled On the Origin, History, Character and the Wrongs and Rights of the Indians, with a Plan for the Preservation and Happiness of the Remnants of that Persecuted Race. Volume 2 begins after page 340 of Volume 1.
Thomas Loraine McKenney (1785-1859) was a Quaker who was appointed in 1816 by President Madison in 1816 as the “Superintendent of the United States Indian Trade with the Indian Tribes”. The account in Volume 1 opens with that appointment. He later served as the “Superintendent of Indian Affairs”, but was dismissed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830. McKenney was a strong advocate for educating Indians, and openly critical of the way they had been treated by the government.
and of Incidents connected with the Treaty of Fond du Lac. Also, a Vocabulary of the Algic, or Chippeway Language”
McKenney, Thomas Loraine
Baltimore: Fielding Lucas Jr. 1827
See the entry on this web page at McKenney’s Memoirs: Official and Personal for a brief biographical note.
Comprising a Narrative of a Tour Performed in the Summer of 1820, under a Commission from the President of the United States, for the Purpose of Ascertaining, for the use of the Government, the Actual State of the Indian Tribes in our Country
Morse, Jedidiah (Rev.)
New Haven: Davis & Force. 1822
Indian Culture and European Trade Goods: The Archaeology of the Historic Period in the Western Great Lakes Region
Quimby, George Irving
University of Wisconsin 1966
A collection of essays by Quimby, that provides a sequel to his ‘Indian Life in the Upper Great Lakes: 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1800’; also on this web page. The previous book emphasizes prehistoric cultures, and the second emphasizes historic cultures. The culture history in this book “is the product of archaeological research supplemented when possible by eyewitness accounts of European missionaries and traders.” – Author’s Preface
Contents: The first twelve thousand years – Indian culture just before the French – The first European trade ship on the western Great Lakes – Dating the past with Jew’s-harps, Jesuit rings, and other trade objects – Chronology from glass beads – The time of the trade silver – The archaeology of the early historic period, 1610-1760 – The archaeology of the late historic period, 1760-1820 – The archaeology and ethnology of a Chippewa family in the late historic period
Quimby, George Irving
University of Chicago 1971
See the description for Quimby’s ‘Indian Culture and European Trade Goods’, on this web page.
Contents: An introduction to the upper Great Lakes region – Dating the past – The archeology of Environment – Mastodons and men – Lanceolate points and fossil beaches – Boreal archaic culture from 5,000 to 500 B.C. – The changing world of the Old Copper Indians – Burial mounds and pottery 500 to 100 B.C. – The Hopewell Indians and the Beginnings of agriculture in the region – Cultural diversity in late woodland times A.D. 800-1600 – Indian tribes of the early historic period A.D. 1600-1760 – The Huron and the Chippewa A.D. 1600-1760 – The Ottawa and the Potawatomi A.D. 1600-1760 – The Sauk, Fox, and Miami A.D. 1650-1760 – The Winnebago and the Menomini A.D. 1600-1760 – The breakdown of tribal culture A.D. 1760-1820
Ohio History XII, October 1903/Number 4, 410-37
Randall, Emilius O.
Columbus: Ohio Historical Society
Emilius Randall (1850-1919) of Columbus, OH was a Law Professor at Ohio State University and the official reporter of the Ohio Supreme Court. Appointed by the Governor as a Trustee of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, he also served as Secretary and Editor. He edited 28 volumes and authored several books and numerous articles for the Society.
In the first part of the article the author puts Pontiac’s Conspiracy into its historical context with a brief description of how competition between the French and British for the Ohio Valley led to war in 1754. He then describes the role the Indian tribes in the region played in the war, and the British take-over of French forts in the region in 1760 as the war began to swing their way. Chief Pontiac and his Ottawa tribe, as well as most other tribes in the region, aimed to reverse this trend and chase the British out of the region.
In this author’s interpretation of these events, in late 1762 Pontiac began carrying out his plan to take the forts from the British. On or about May 1, 1763, simultaneous attacks were made on approximately 14 forts, with the Indians successfully taking eight. This article contains a detailed description of the attack and ensuing six-month siege at Fort Detroit. Detroit was the most important fort in the region, and Pontiac was present to direct that attack.
Please visit our Native Americans section, with hundreds of free online books
through exploration and interpretation of their earth mounds, their burials and their cultural remains
Shetrone, Henry Clyde
NY: Appleton-Century 1936
H. C. Shetrone was Director and Archaeologist of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society. This book was intended as an introduction to the subject for a popular audience, and contains nearly 300 illustrations.
For works on the mound-builders, see:
– Easton, J. A., “American Aborigines and their Social Customs” in Ohio Indians – Native Americans in Ohio History;
– Fowke, Gerard, Archaeological History of Ohio: The Mound Builders and Later Indians in Ohio Indians – Native Americans in Ohio History;
– Moorehead, Warren K.,“The Indian Tribes of Ohio – Historically Considered” in Ohio Indians – Native Americans in Ohio History;
– Randall,Emilius Oviatt,The Masterpieces of the Ohio Mound Builders: The Hilltop Fortifications, including Fort Ancient in Ohio Indians – Native Americans in Ohio History;
– Throop, Addison J. ,Mound builders of Illinois … in Illinois Indians – Native Americans in Illinois History
in Pennsylvania, of the French and Indian War, Pontiac’s war, Lord Dunmore’s War, the Revolutionary War, and the Indian uprising from 1789 to 1795; tragedies of the Pennsylvania frontier based primarily on the Penna. archives and colonial records
Sipe, Hale C.
1929 Dewey Dec. 970.1
Thornbrough, Gayle, ed.
Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society 1961
A reprint of the original manuscript, which consisted of materials copied into the letter book by two successive Indian Agents at Fort Wayne from 1809-1815.
Smithsonian Institution 1964
“In the first half of the 17th century, the Iroquoian-speaking Huron lived in an area at the southern end of Georgian Bay in the present Province of Ontario, Canada. It was there that the French visited them, some recording what they saw and thus providing much of what we know of Huron culture—for in 1649 the Huron were driven from their homeland by the Iroquois and dispersed. The body of this work, a compilation of the ethnographic data contained in 17th-century descriptions, is intended to be a more convenient general introduction and index to Huron culture than is presently available.” -Author’s preface
Trowbridge, Charles Christopher
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan 1938
Edited by Vernon Kinietz. C. C. Trowbridge (1800-1883) wrote this report in 1825 on the traditions of the Miamis in response to a questionnaire from Michigan Territorial Governor Lewis Cass, who was attempting to settle a dispute between Wyandots and Miamis about precedence of settlement in areas of Ohio and Indiana.
Collected articles on How Historians Work
Fieldiana: Anthropology New Series, No. 13
VanStone, James W.
Field Museum of Natural History 1989
This booklet describes and illustrates the trade ornaments that have been collected by the Field Museum over many years. The majority of the marked ornaments were the work of Canadian craftsmen and were traded to Indians by traders based in Montreal. They represent the variety of ornaments traded to Great Lakes Indians in the latter 18th and early 19th centuries. – Abstract
Contents: Abstract – Introduction – Pendants – Brooches – Gorgets – Arm- and wristbands – Ear ornaments – Miscellaneous – Identifying marks – Conclusions
Young, Egerton R.
NY: Eaton & Mains. 1903
The Reverend Egerton R. Young (1840-1909) was born and raised in Ontario, Canada. He became a Wesleyan Methodist minister in his early 20s, and in 1868 he and his wife were sent out for his first assignment as a missionary among the Indians. He continued to do mission work until 1887, then began a lecture tour in the eastern U.S, telling about his experiences among the Indians. In 1890 he completed the first of over a dozen books, all drawn upon his mission experience.